Deliverable Ten: A mapping of existing and potential technical capabilities for monitoring and verification

Prepared By:
Working Group 3



Working Group 3, co-chaired by Sweden and the United States, sought to identify solutions for key technical challenges related to monitoring nuclear disarmament, particularly issues relating to nuclear warhead authentication. The group was tasked with mapping existing and potential technical capabilities necessary to enable monitoring and verification at different stages of a nuclear weapon dismantlement process. The mapping was to provide the level of confidence the technology brings to monitoring the dismantlement process, with a list that identifies capability, gaps, and weaknesses to inform future research.

Final Papers

The summary of this mapping exercise, along with the technology matrices can be downloaded here:


Supporting Background Papers

Further information about these technologies and the research done by Working Group 3 can be found in the following supporting background documents:

SNM Monitoring Technology Data Sheets:

  1. Calorimetry
  2. High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectroscopy
  3. Gamma-ray Imaging
  4. Passive Neutron Counting
  5. Pulsed Neutron Interrogation
  6. Active Neutron Interrogation
  7. Fast Neutron Imaging
  8. Muon Tomography
  9. Radiation Templates
  10. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence

HE Monitoring Technology Data Sheets:

  1. X-ray Computed Tomography
  2. Fast Neutron Interrogation
  3. Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR)-Explosive Identification System
  4. Raman Explosive Identification System
  5. X-ray Backscattering Imaging
  6. X-ray Diffraction
  7. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence

CoC Technology Data Sheets:

  1. 3D Facility Verification and Change Detection Technology
  2. 3D Identification and Containment Technology
  3. 3D Surveillance Technology
  4. Accelerometers
  5. Radiation Detection Technology
  6. Tamper Indicating Seals and Enclosures Technology
  7. Container Integrity Assessment Technology
  8. Optical Change Detection Technology
  9. RFID Technology Data Sheet
  10. UID Technology Data Sheet

Photo credit: Petr Pavlicek / IAEA


*The term “Nuclear Explosive Device,” (NED) is used to refer to the item subject to monitoring and inspection activities. The term “NED” was used to address specific technical considerations related to the definition of a nuclear weapon that arose during discussions among experts. Other products produced by the Partnership use the more generic term “nuclear weapon.” The latter usage is devoid of any specific technical meaning and relies on a general understanding of the term.